Role Of G9a Enzyme In Oestrogen Receptor Positive (ER+) Breast Cancer Recurrence

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Most common cancer in women is breast cancer as it occurs in breast cells and can spread into the lymph nodes under arms. Even after the diagnosis and surgery, there may be chances of Breast Cancer Recurrence in some patients. Out of all breast cancer cases, Oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer is most common and this has a risk of cancer recurring even after many years.

Recent study report

Recent study at The Institute of Cancer research, London found that breast cancer cells can go to the ‘sleep mode’ to avoid treatment and ‘wake up’ after so many years that result in breast cancer relapse which is tricky to cure.

This research group found the role of epigenetics that may influence cancer cells to become dormant as epigenetics deals with the changes by behaviour and environment to genes that affects the way of working in genes. Compared to genetic changes, epigenetic changes are reversible as they do not change the DNA sequence but they can change how our body reads the DNA sequence.

Epigenetic mechanism

As per the study, specific changes happen in epigenetic regulators that control gene transcription and can modify the histone H3 at Lysine 9 (H3K9me2) . This makes breast cancer cells into dormant state.

Targeting G9a enzyme to prevent relapse of breast cancer

Researchers used hormone therapy to inhibit the G9a enzyme that catalyses H3K9me2 for preventing the cancer cells entering dormancy due to epigenetic changes. Cohort study also found the low expression of G9a enzyme that can significantly lower the risk of breast cancer relapse.

This research has given probable evidence for the role of regulating epigenetic changes in complex behaviour in cancer. Most times cancer will adapt and evolve to evade the treatment process but this study showed breast cancer cells lie dormant to hide the treatment.

Role of lifestyle in epigenetics

Lifestyle changes will play a key role in epigenetics changes as we always tend to follow a lethargic daily routine with high calorie, processed western diet . Indian food practices always follow the principles of ayurveda by including medicinal herbs, coloured fruits and vegetables. This diet is always blended with rich Antioxidants that can reduce oxidative stress and inflammation in the body which in turn prevent cancer and its relapse.

As “Our Food is a great Medicine” , we always mobilise our human biology with great valued food with moderate exercise which boosts up our metabolism and can prevent many cancers.