Trivial Role Of Mitochondria In Energy Metabolism And Apoptosis

You are currently viewing Trivial Role Of Mitochondria In Energy Metabolism And Apoptosis

In our daily life, we are constantly undergoing different activities to accomplish our duties and survival. We require more energy levels and are done by the organelle, mitochondria.

Mitochondria induces mitophagy, in which old and damaged mitochondria are removed, new mitochondria are produced. Indeed mitochondria are more susceptible to the damage by the various reactions in the cell.

Mitochondria performs autophagy, which implies degrading of cellular components and recycling them to new ones. This autophagy is mainly controlled by a nutrient sensor, mTOR, the mechanistic target of rapamycin.

Role of nutrient sensors in Autophagy

When nutrients are high, the levels of mTOR will also be high, making the cell into growth mode. It results in stopping of autophagy and mitophagy so new mitochondria cannot be formed.

Another nutrient sensor AMPK (AMP activated protein kinase) also controls the growth of mitochondria. AMPK levels will be high with the low levels of energy availability in the cell, which stimulates the growth of new mitochondria. So food restriction and intermittent fasting showed a great impact in mitochondrial growth networks.

Nutrient sensor and apoptosis

So the more availability of nutrient sensors like insulin, mTOR, and AMPK reduces the mitophagy and new mitochondrial formation. This defective mitochondria impairs the apoptosis that damages the balance between cell growth and cell death. Some of these damaged cells may turn cancerous.

Energy metabolism of Mitochondria and apoptosis

Mitochondria plays a key role in energy metabolism and apoptosis, we need new mitochondria that are created in the cells. It will happen only by restricting the food intake inturn reduces nutrients in the cell as well as nutrient sensors. This leads to proper autophagy and mitophagy in the cell which induces in new formation of  Cellular Components and mitochondria.

Fasting helps in the growth of mitochondria, inturn helps in apoptosis and energy metabolism. We Indians believe fasting on specific days in a year helps in detoxification and regeneration. By having less nutrients, we are able to reduce hyperinsulinemia, type 2 diabetes, obesity and growth of cancers.

Lifestyle activities of regular exercise is the key to having a functional mitochondria that makes us healthy and anti-ageing. High intensity interval training (HIIT) is more beneficial for both younger and older adults. Performing 45 seconds of high intense activity with 30 seconds of low intense activity in a cycle  for 3 minutes is essential for a day.

Also Read: How Do I Choose A Better Treatment For Cancer?